Embedded Computing Design

E-Letter
DECEMBER 2019

 
 
 
 
 
 
EMBEDDED NETWORKING FEATURE
CARL TURNER, LAIRD CONNECTIVITY SOLUTIONS
 
It takes a very careful balance between an antenna?s size, design, and performance to meet customers? needs while also matching their stylistic preferences for the products? overall design. As a rule of thumb, the larger the antenna is, the better its wireless range will be ? but with that better performance comes challenges about how to make it work for the product you are designing.
 
 
 
 
 
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IoT SENSING FEATURE
ZHANG FENG AND MARTEN SMITH, MICROCHIP TECHNOLOGY INC.
 
One of the really interesting things about hemoglobin is how it reflects and absorbs light. For example, Hb absorbs more (and reflects less) visible red light. HbO2 absorbs more (and reflects less) infrared light. Since blood oxygen saturation can be determined by comparing the values of Hb and HbO2, one method for doing this is shining both a red LED and an infrared LED through a body part (such as a finger or wrist), and then comparing their relative intensities.

There are two common methods of doing this: (1) measuring the light transmitted through tissue is called transmissive oximetry, and (2) measuring the light reflected by tissue is called reflectance oximetry.
 
 
 
 
 
 
IoT NETWORKING FEATURE
NIKOS VOKAS, ECONAIS
 
Many designers, instead of trying to handle the complexity of developing their own wireless systems for their Internet of Everything products, are instead choosing to use pre-certified fully integrated Wi-Fi connectivity solutions. Created specifically to help designers meet these new challenges, these embedded modules and software provide a cost-effective way for Internet of Everything product makers to get their products to market more quickly with less cost and less risk.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
IoT DEVELOPMENT TOOLS & OPERATING SYSTEMS FEATURE
JOHN WEBER, AVNET
 
Once an Internet of Things (IoT) device is installed, it is not a ?fire and forget? scenario. There will be bug fixes and software updates needed; some devices will fail and need to be repaired or replaced; and each time this happens your company is on the hook to minimize downtime ? not only to keep your customers happy, but to ensure that you protect your revenue stream.

How do you ensure this? By designing thoughtful device management into your product.
 
 
 
 
 
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IoT NETWORKING FEATURE
TOM SMITH, LSR
 
To succeed in this new IoT world, the question isn?t simply, ?How do we design a wireless product?? but more appropriately, ?How do we successfully get our wireless product to market??

Literally thousands of established companies that have never had to consider Federal Communications Commission (FCC) certification and compliance testing for a product that contains an ?intentional radiator? will now have to account for this additional requirement in their product development process to gain market entry.
 
 
 
 
 
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DEVELOPMENT KIT FEATURE
JEREMY COOK, ENGINEERING CONSULTANT
 
Since Arduino boards have become something of a de facto standard for maker and DIY projects, many other boards have adapted their systems to be programmed within the Arduino IDE. One of the most interesting modules out there is the ESP8266, and I finally decided to jump on this bandwagon with a WeMos D1 Mini board. This amazing board isn?t much bigger than a quarter and includes 11 digital I/O pins as well as a single analog pin, all for a price well under $5.
 
 
 
 
 
 
IoT NETWORKING FEATURE
CHRISTIAN LEGARE, MICRIUM
 
Many IoT projects are being driven by chief information officers (CIOs) and IT departments, who are pushing developers to use the technologies and protocols that they know in IoT devices. Nevertheless, IoT devices are often closer to operational technology (OT), and pushing IT technology into the OT domain is often not an optimal choice.

Developers need to be educated that there are better protocol options for IoT devices than IT technologies.
 
 
 
 
 
 
EMBEDDED PROCESSING FEATURE
ALLEN RUSH, NETHRA IMAGING
 
Filtering in image processing is a mainstay function that is used to accomplish many things, including interpolation, noise reduction, and resampling. The choice of filter is often determined by the nature of the task and the type and behavior of the data. Noise, dynamic range, color accuracy, optical artifacts, and many more details affect the outcome of filter functions in image processing.

The following discussion will explore the differences between two major categories of filtering ? linear and nonlinear ? as well as highlight image processing approaches that benefit from these filter types and identify situations where one filter might be preferred or required over the other.
 
 
 
 
 
 
EMBEDDED NETWORKING FEATURE
LEKUN LIN, INTEGRATED DEVICE TECHNOLOGY
 
In a traditional wireless system, the receiver and transmitter do not communicate back and forth. The receiver is alone in figuring out the channel information and decoding the streams. This puts a heavy complexity burden on the receiver and prevents the system from fully utilizing channel diversity or capacity. These systems are called open-loop systems.

Most current wireless standards allocate a limited feedback channel between the handset and Base Transceiver Station (BTS). This channel can be used for many purposes, especially for sending vital information about the channel back to the BTS. The information enables simple spatial diversity and multiplexing techniques that increase the system?s effective Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) and potentially simplify the receiver architecture. These systems are called closed-loop systems.
 
 
 
 
 
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EMBEDDED MEMORY FEATURE
KEN WHITAKER, VP, ENGINEERING, DATALIGHT
 
Memory subsystems needn?t require a significant learning curve.

The complexity of today?s embedded systems and the accompanying memory subsystems can sometimes have a learning curve for the novice engineer. Memory comprises hardware components that operate as either temporary (volatile) or persistent (non-volatile) storage ?containers.? These magical nuggets of electrically-charged circuitry store states of information and are used for instructions (binary code) and organize data as addressable bytes (8 bits), double-bytes (16 bits), and quad-bytes (32 bits).

In combination with the embedded operating system (OS) that controls the resources like memory subsystems, software instructs the processor (CPU) to send a burst of electricity along an address line that identifies a transition?s location in the chip where data is stored. This pulse can turn on or off a transistor connected to data lines. When the electrical pulse reaches an address line, the pulse flows through a closed transistor and charges a capacitor that stores the equivalent of a 1 (on) bit and, conversely, an uncharged capacitor represents a 0 (off) bit.
 
 
 
 
 
 
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Annapolis Micro Systems
 
Annapolis Micro Systems, Inc.
 
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National Instruments
 
 
SPONSORED WHITE PAPER
NATIONAL INSTRUMENTS
 
Acquiring accurate DC measurements is a common need across many applications, but simply purchasing a highly accurate and sensitive instrument is not enough. This guide shows you how to use a source measure unit (SMU) to perform DC measurements by reviewing instrument fundamentals, how to use SMUs, and examining the features that can help you set up your instrument.
 
 
 
 
 
Silicon Labs
SPONSORED WHITE PAPER
SILICON LABS
 
Adoption of smart connected lighting is gaining traction in residential, commercial and industrial markets. However, enabling smart connectivity in a cost-effective way creates many design and implementation challenges for lighting OEMs. Download this whitepaper to learn more about the hardware and software technologies that can help simplify your connected lighting application development.
 
 
 
 
 
UL
 
 
SPONSORED WHITE PAPER
UL
 
In a competitive market, it is important to find a differentiator for your products, and often a competitive advantage is sought through adding smart features and connecting products to business networks or the internet. However, as new features and connections are added, the security of such systems is often degraded.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
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